How To Prevent Prostate Cancer Through Proper Nutrition
6/16/2015
Robert Kachko, ND, LAc
Tuesday, June 16, 2015
by: Robert Kachko, ND, LAc

Section: Men's Health


About Dr. Robert Kachko

Robert Kachko, ND, LAc is a Naturopathic Doctor and Licensed Acupuncturist at InnerSource Health in New York City. He proudly serves on the Board of Directors of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP) and takes an active role in the New York Association of Naturopathic Physicians (NYANP). He graduated Summa Cum Laude with a Doctoral Degree in Naturopathic Medicine and a Masters Degree in Acupuncture from the University of Bridgeport College of Naturopathic Medicine and Acupuncture Institute. He has completed an additional 2 year course of study in Classical Homeopathy at the New England School of Homeopathy. He completed his pre-medical studies with a Bachelor's Degree with honors at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Dr. Kachko believes in the importance of expanding access to Naturopathic Medicine and Acupuncture for all patients. At the College of Naturopathic Medicine, he was founding President of the expanded local chapter of the Naturopathic Medical Student Association (NMSA) and received the prestigious award for Outstanding Service to the Profession.


To learn more about Dr. Kachko, please visit him on Facebook and www.innersourcehealth.com/Robert-Kachko.
Prostate cancer, and all cancer for that matter, can be prevented. While there’s certainly a genetic component to disease progression, the majority of our health outcomes are firmly within our control. Epigenetic (literally meaning “above the genes”) research is beginning to elucidate what we’ve known in Naturopathic Medicine for years: health promoting choices lead to longer, healthier, and happier lives. Since we are in so many ways “what we eat”, any rational approach to cancer prevention must start with health promoting nutritional choices.
Prostate cancer, and all cancer for that matter, can be prevented...
 
How the West Was Lost
The incidence of prostate cancer in the United States and other industrialized nations has been gradually increasing despite advances in screening and treatment. In fact, those very same advances partly explain why we are seeing more prostate cancer (specifically, early screening programs based on a blood marker called Prostate Specific Antigen - PSA). However, this difference in incidence was already apparent in the 1980s before PSA screening was readily available (please note, the choice to undergo prostate cancer screening is an important and individual one, so men should discuss this with their urologist and health care team), meaning other factors must be at play. Studies suggest that the approximately 6-fold difference in rates of prostate cancer between Western and non-Western countries is related to how we choose to live our lives: particularly poor dietary choices and sedentary lifestyles which both lead to elevated rates of obesity.[i] Below, we’ll review the role of diet in the development of prostate cancer based on findings from a recent review of the available literature.[ii]
 
Overall Impact of Various Diets
While the typical Western diet has been implicated in elevated rates of prostate cancer, the Mediterranean diet and other whole foods predominantly plant-based diets have been shown to be protective.[iii] [iv] The typical diets found in Asian countries are higher in omega 3 fatty acids, soy, and green tea than most Western diets, and men in these countries tend to have less prostate cancer.[v] Though no diet is truly “typical”, the cancer promoting diet so common in the US consists of high intake of red meat, processed meats, dairy, fried foods, added sugar, and chemical preservatives/additives.
 
Fat
Rather than focusing on the amount of fat we consume (the sweeping long-term vilification of fat has been detrimental to the health of millions of people), the type of fat we choose is far more important. In a study of 14,514 men, intake of saturated fat (which is especially high in meat sources) was related to increased risk of prostate cancer, while intake of plant-based fat was associated with reduced risk. The ratio of omega 3 (most readily found in cold water fish) to omega 6 (most readily found in animal meats) polyunsaturated fatty acids we consume also plays a role, potentially through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Increased Omega 3 fatty acid intake is related to reduced risk of high-grade fatal prostate cancer.[vi] [vii] In one study of men who had already received a prostate cancer diagnosis, reducing animal fat intake by 10% and replacing it with vegetable fat intake lead to a 44% reduction in death from prostate cancer.[viii]
 
Protein
Not all protein is created equal. Protein from animal, plant, and dairy sources can have a unique impact on cancer progression. In addition, how we cook our protein plays a role: generally speaking, meats cooked at high temperatures promote prostate cancer progression (likely due to heterocyclic amine content). Baked poultry has been associated with reduced risk, while cooked red meat is associated with increased risk.[ix] Protein from dairy sources (milk, cheese, yogurt) was found to be associated with increased risk in a study of 21,660 men, with low fat dairy increasing overall risk and high fat dairy increasing risk for fatal forms of prostate cancer.[x]  In men already diagnosed with prostate cancer, higher intake of dairy is associated with a worse prognosis.[xi] Though soy protein and certain isoflavones in soy have been proposed as having cancer protective effects, the jury is still out on their effect in humans. Based on the work of researchers such as T. Colin Campbell, we know that animal sources of protein tend to increase overall cancer risk, and plant sources tend to decrease risk.[xii]
 
Carbohydrates
The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed plays a role in cancer development, partially through their impact on insulin metabolism. High intake of refined carbohydrates has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.[xiii] Animal studies show that both no carbohydrate (ketogenic) and low carbohydrate (20% of calories) diets slow prostate tumor growth.[xiv]
 
Fruits and Vegetables
While research in humans on the benefit of individual nutrients such as Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and Selenium on prostate cancer progression are currently lacking, a whole foods diet high in fruits and vegetables is key. There is an inverse relationship between their intake and prostate cancer risk, and sulfur containing vegetables such as garlic and onion are particularly impressive in their impact.[xv] [xvi] [xvii] Cruciferous vegetables are also a great source of anti-cancer compounds, and broccoli is especially beneficial. Higher lycopene consumption (found in tomatoes) has been shown to reduce prostate cancer risk.[xviii] [xix]
 
Coffee, Green Tea, and Water
Through various mechanisms, moderate intake of coffee likely reduces risk of prostate cancer.[xx] Green tea has been well studied in its effects, and in a trial of 60 men, daily intake of a green tea extract reduced prostate cancer occurrence by 90%.[xxi] High intake of sugary drinks such as soda or juice impairs immune function and thus should be avoided. It is important to consume enough water every day to maintain appropriate hydration, especially when consuming daily caffeine through coffee and tea sources.
 
No One Diet Right For Everyone
Despite the breadth of population based research available, one must be careful not to extrapolate these findings to everyone. While studying health outcomes in thousands of people provides better evidence of efficacy in terms of public health decisions, everyone has individual needs. These unique needs must be systematically assessed and addressed to find an optimal nutrition plan. Make sure to find a Naturopathic Physician near you to begin to set a foundation for long-term health through proper diet.


[i]Center MM, Jemal A, Lortet-Tieulent J, Ward E, Ferlay J, Brawley O, Bray F: International variation in prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eur Urol 2012, 61:1079–1092.
[ii]Lin P-H, Aronson W, Freedland SJ. Nutrition, dietary interventions and prostate cancer: the latest evidence. BMC Medicine. 2015;13:3. doi:10.1186/s12916-014-0234-y.
[iii]Ambrosini GL, Fritschi L, de Klerk NH, Mackerras D, Leavy J: Dietary patterns identified using factor analysis and prostate cancer risk: a case control study in Western Australia. Ann Epidemiol 2008, 18:364–370.
[iv]Kapiszewska M: A vegetable to meat consumption ratio as a relevant factor determining cancer preventive diet. The Mediterranean versus other European countries. Forum Nutr 2006, 59:130–153.
[v]Baade PD, Youlden DR, Krnjacki LJ: International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends. Mol Nutr Food Res 2009, 53:171–184.
[vi]Bosire C, Stampfer MJ, Subar AF, Park Y, Kirkpatrick SI, Chiuve SE, Hollenbeck AR, Reedy J: Index-based dietary patterns and the risk of prostate cancer in the NIH-AARP diet and health study. Am J Epidemiol 2013, 177:504–513.
[vii]Aronson WJ, Barnard RJ, Freedland SJ, Henning S, Elashoff D, Jardack PM, Cohen P, Heber D, Kobayashi N: Growth inhibitory effect of low fat diet on prostate cancer cells: results of a prospective, randomized dietary intervention trial in men with prostate cancer. J Urol 2010, 183:345–350.
[viii]Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Chavarro JE, et al. Fat intake after diagnosis and risk of lethal prostate cancer and all-cause mortality. JAMA internal medicine. 2013;173(14):1318-1326. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.6536.
[ix]Joshi AD, Corral R, Catsburg C, Lewinger JP, Koo J, John EM, Ingles SA, Stern MC: Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study. Carcinogenesis 2012, 33:2108–2118.
[x]Song Y, Chavarro JE, Cao Y, Qiu W, Mucci L, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Pollak M, Liu S, Ma J: Whole milk intake is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians. J Nutr Feb 2013, 143:189–196.
[xi]Yang M, Kenfield SA, Van Blarigan EL, et al. Dairy intake after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality. Int. J. Cancer 2015; 00:1-8.
[xii]T. Colin Campbell. The China Study. BenBella Books 2005.
[xiii]Drake I, Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ahlgren G, Bjartell A, Wallstrom P, Wirfält E:
Dietary intakes of carbohydrates in relation to prostate cancer risk: a prospective study in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 2012, 96:1409–1418.
[xiv]Masko EM, Thomas JA 2nd, Antonelli JA, Lloyd JC, Phillips TE, Poulton SH, Dewhirst MW, Pizzo SV, Freedland SJ: Low-carbohydrate diets and prostate cancer: how low is “low enough”? Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010, 3:1124–1131.
[xv]Askari F, Parizi MK, Jessri M, Rashidkhani B: Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to prostate cancer in Iranian men: a case–control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014, 15:5223–5227.
[xvi]Liu B, Mao Q, Cao M, Xie L: Cruciferous vegetables intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Urol 2012, 19:134–141.
[xvii]Richman EL, Carroll PR, Chan JM: Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression. Int J Cancer 2012, 131:201–210.
[xviii]Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC: A prospective study of tomato products, lycopene, and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002, 94:391–398.
[xix]Zu K, Mucci L, Rosner BA, Clinton SK, Loda M, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E: Dietary lycopene, angiogenesis, and prostate cancer: a prospective study in the prostate-specific antigen era. J Natl Cancer Inst 2014, 106:djt430.
[xx]Cao S, Liu L, Yin X, Wang Y, Liu J, Lu Z: Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Carcinogenesis 2014, 35:256–261.
[xxi]Kurahashi N, Sasazuki S, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Tsugane S: Green tea consumption and prostate cancer risk in Japanese men: a prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2008, 167:71–77.
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